Carbon Capture Regulations, Funding & Standards Track
Regulatory and Tax Policy Resources for Potential CCUS Project Stakeholders
Alex Krowka, Consultant - United States Energy Association
The United States Energy Association’s (USEA) Consensus Program is a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management to promote both a domestic and international consensus on Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage (CCUS) and other Carbon Management technologies. In service to this mission, USEA has worked with a set of organizations to produce a series of studies providing insights on various Local, State, and Federal regulatory and tax policies regarding CCUS.
The first set of studies was and is being produced by a team from the University of Wyoming (UW) and West Virginia University (WVU) and another team from the Cadmus Group. The “Study on States’ Policies and Regulations per CO2-EOR Storage Conventional, ROZ and EOR in Shale: Permitting, Infrastructure, Incentives, Royalty Owners, Eminent Domain, Mineral-Pore Space, and Storage Lease Issues” evaluates laws, policies, and regulations governing CO2-EOR, associated CO2 storage operations, and geologic storage across twelve states and onshore federal lands.
USEA also worked with FTI to complete a “Review of Federal, State, and Regional Tax Strategies and Opportunities for CO2-EOR-Storage and The CCUS Value Chain.” This study offers insights into the complexities of the combination of federal and state tax credits and other incentives that exist to encourage development of the CCUS industry.
This presentation will review these studies which assist stakeholders build their knowledgebase of the policies and incentives to be aware of as we see rapid scaling of the CCUS industry.
Challenges in Permitting and Incentivizing CCUS Projects in California
Maris Densmore, Manager of Carbon Capture Solutions - California Resources Corporation
California strives to be a global leader in addressing climate change but has yet to develop a CCUS project within the state’s borders. While California is home to vast geologic and industrial opportunities for CCUS, it lacks the regulatory structure needed to efficiently review and approve projects.
To effectively encourage deployment of CCUS projects, the state must clearly define permitting leadership and pathways for the wide variety of project opportunities that will enable the state to meet its ambitious climate goals. Many local, state, and federal agencies are involved in the permitting of an individual project- streamlining of regulatory review will support rapid deployment. These permitting strategies must address the capture, transportation, utilization, and sequestration of CO2, the timely alignment of these three aspects of CCUS is critical. In concert with development and streamlining of permitting pathways, it is also essential to establish robust incentive programs to financially support CCUS projects over the long timeframes needed for projects to be economically viable. Currently, CCUS projects are not eligible under the state’s Cap & Trade program which severely limits which potential CCUS projects can be economically deployed. CCUS represents a permanent, quantifiable, and local solution to address climate change and meet California’s carbon targets. However, how does California (and other states) get there?
New Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technology Track
Panel Session - Emergence of Hubs and Clusters for CCUS in the US: A Driver of Growth
Moderator: Patricia Loria, Senior Client Engagement Lead - Global CCS Institute
To achieve the 5,600 mtpa of CO2 capture and storage likely needed to reach midcentury climate goals 70 to 100 new CCS facilities will need to be built every year. This herculean task will be impossible if every CCS facility must build its own storage site. Therefore, the world is looking to implement hub and cluster models – sites where multiple emitters can use a shared storage infrastructure. Europe had been leading the development of hubs and clusters with government support, and the US has seen multiple announcements over the past year seeking to link multiple capture sites with a shared interstate transport and storage network. Developers of these hubs and clusters will share their plans to develop these sites and what it can mean for emitters looking to decarbonize.
Providing a Pathway to Scale up for Post Combustion Capture Technologies at the Wyoming Integrated Test Center
Will Morris Ph.D., President and Technical Director- Carbon Management Strategies LLC & Program Director Wyoming ITC
The State of Wyoming along with private partners has constructed a post combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and utilization test center, the Wyoming Integrated Test Center (ITC) for the testing of post-combustion CO2 separation and utilization technologies at a coal-fired electric generation power plant located at Basin Electric Power Cooperative’s Dry Fork Station (DFS). Additional project partners include Tri-State G&T, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Black Hills Energy, and Rocky Mountain Power.
The ITC provides space for researchers to test CCU technologies using a combined 26 MW e of coal derived flue gas. The ITC willalso be the host site of Membrane Technology and Research’s (MTR) 10 MWe phase 3 pilot project with funding from the DOE and NETL.
In addition, the ITC is working with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Ohio State University (OSU) to scale up an advanced membrane material to 1 MWe scale. The ITC continues to work with Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI), the Japan Coal Frontier Organization (JCOAL), and the Japanese Ministry of Environment (MOE) to support development of KHI’s novel solid adsorbent technology. Additionally, the ITC continues to work with TDA Research to support their ongoing work in hybrid systems and solid sorbent development.
Learning how the ITC is deploying these advanced technologies in this session.
Boosting the Efficiency of CO2 Conversion Systems using Gas-Capturing Surfaces
Dr. Sami Khan, Assistant Professor in the School of Sustainable Energy Engineering - Simon Fraser University
Electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 is a promising approach towards reducing the ever-growing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere and generating valuable fuel products such as ethylene and ethanol. A fundamental challenge in performing this reaction is the limited solubility of CO2 in aqueous electrolytes which can increase co-evolution of hydrogen and reduce the selectivity to fuel products over time. This CO2 solubility limitation is an important bottleneck that needs to be overcome in order to maximize energy-efficient scale-up of this conversion process.
Learn about a specialized gas-attracting surface which when placed in close proximity to a CO2 conversion catalyst increases local CO2 concentration close to the catalyst. This surface is a micro-textured superhydrophobic material that repels water but allows a smooth layer of gas called a plastron to stay close along its surface and thereby results in local supersaturation of CO2. By using this surface in close proximity to a copper catalyst, the competing hydrogen co-evolution reaction is suppressed and CO2 conversion rate is doubled, thereby generating attractive products such as ethylene, propanol and ethanol, as well as acetone and acetate which have not been reported previously.
High Flux Highly Selective Facilitated Transport Membranes for Carbon Capture and Sequestration
Dr. Hannah Murnen, Chief Technical Officer - Compact Membrane Systems
Carbon capture technology allows users to filter and sequester the CO2 at the source and reduce emissions by up to 90%. Currently, separation and concentration of the CO2 stream in preparation for liquefaction and storage is done using amine towers. These towers are costly (>$50/ton of CO2) and have a parasitic energy load of 20-40%, making them unfeasible for large scale adoption. Membranes hold promise for carbon capture because they can be scaled to the size of the application and require lower energy usage and operational cost than existing carbon capture technologies.
Learn about new membrane systems that facilitate with 3x higher permeance than existing membrane technology. The technology uses a fluoropolymer composite membrane with a facilitating agent incorporated into the polymer to pull CO2 across the membrane. The increased flux and high selectivity positions new membrane technologies to reduce the cost of carbon capture below $20/ton. Membranes operate in energy efficient modes, so can reduce the parasitic load imposed by alternative technologies like amine towers.
Initial results for utilizing the CMS membranes to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas, including the effect of operating conditions and initial system modeling, will be shared. Results thus far have shown a very high flux membrane (3,000-5,000 GPU) that would result in substantially lower capture costs and increased efficiency.
Producing Low Carbon Concrete Directly from Flue Gas
Rahul Shendure, CEO - CarbonBuilt
Globally about 25 billion tonnes of concrete are produced each year, contributing about 8 percent of total global emissions. New technologies are being built that can reduce concrete’s carbon footprint by more than 50 percent through changes to its formulation and by the utilization of flue gas streams from industrial sources. Importantly, the process does not require capture or purification of the CO2.
By using lower carbon ingredients and flue gas CO2, new processes enable a 10-20% reduction in the raw materials cost, which alone can expand operating margins for concrete producers by more than 50%. This combination of lower carbon footprint and reduced cost of production will accelerate adoption in that industry and create a gigaton-scale impact.
CarbonBuilt CEO Rahul Shendure will discuss best practices for conceptualizing and building a business model for carbon utilization.
Natural Carbon Capture & Sequestration Track
Rebuild Soils. Reduce Costs. Improve Yields. Reap Rewards
Geert Eenhoorn, Carbon Project Manager - Climate Neutral Group
AgriCarbon is South Africa’s first carbon program paying farmers for the carbon credits they generate from their sustainable land management practices. Rotational grazing, cover cropping, reduced tillage, and other practices improves soil quality and the farmer’s bottom line. Now, through this program, increased soil organic carbon and reduced greenhouse gas emissions from these practices can also generate verified carbon offsets, which are purchased by the Climate Neutral Group.
Learn from this case study presentation about the South African AgriCarbon Program and its stewardship solution built with the farmer at the center. The wide-ranging collaborative initiative between Climate Neutral Group (CNG) and proponents within the South African Agricultural sector network brings together the best in climate-smart agriculture and soil health management to drive climate action, food security and support farmers’ livelihoods on earth.
Biomass Carbon Capture and Sequestration – When used with Sustainably Sourced Biomass-Based Fuels, Significant Carbon Negative Outcomes are Achievable
Dr. William Strauss, President - FutureMetrics
R&Din CCS is accelerating rapidly in many jurisdictions. The best that CCS can do at a fossil fueled power station (natural gas, coal, or other fossil fuels), if 100% efficient in CO2 removal, is net zero carbon emissions from combustion. But there is way to get to negative net emissions using bioenergy (or biomass) carbon capture and sequestration (BCCS or sometimes BECCS). If biomass-based fuels such as wood pellets are sourced sustainably, they are carbon neutral in combustion. Thus, a power station that replaces coal with refined sustainable sourced biomass-based pellet fuel and has CCS will be net carbon negative.
Wood pellet fuel is already used in large quantities as a substitute for coal in pulverized coal (PC) power stations in England, western Europe, Japan, and South Korea. About 24 million metric tons, or about a panamax shipload of 65,000 metric tons every day, will be used in 2021. The US is a major supplier to those power stations.
This presentation will discuss the benefits and the estimated costs of BCCS and will quantify the estimated negative CO2 outcomes and cost per avoided metric ton of CO2 with an interactive dashboard. The presentation will show how this tactic can be deployed at selected US PC power stations as part of a transition to a more decarbonized power sector.